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Political Relations in the Qur'an

MIT
2/3/2015
473 views

The Glorious Qur'an is the handbook for the best governance of humanity, bearing in mind that the maker of humanity is Allah and His handbook is the Qur'an. It is an all-encompassing manual which has provision for all kinds of relationships including; social, economic and political relationships.

A few verses of the Holy Quran are presented here which give us the basics for Islamic political thought.  In Surah Baqara the Qur'an says:

   ﮥ  ﮦ   ﮧ    ﮨ   ﮩ   ﮪ  ﮬ  ﮭ    ﮮ  ﮯ  ﮰ  ﯓ  ﯔ  ﯕ  ﯗ  ﯘ       ﯙ  ﯚ  ﯛ 

Meaning: “And remember when the Lord of Abraham tried him with certain commands which he fulfilled.  Allah said to him, verily, I am going to make you a leader (Imam) of mankind.  Abraham said, ‘And my offspring? Allah said, ‘my providence includes not the wrong-doers (oppressors)” (Q2:V124). This verse shows that divine leadership is not for transgressors and tyrants.  It is for righteous and just people.

In Surah Saad the Qur'an says:

 ﯷ  ﯸ     ﯹ  ﯺ  ﯻ  ﯼ    ﯽ  ﯾ  ﯿ     ﰀ  ﰁ  ﰂ  ﰃ  ﰄ  ﰅ  ﰆ  ﰇ  ﰖ  

Meaning: “O, Dawood! Verily we have placed you as a successor (Khalifa) on the earth, so judge between men with truth and justice and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah.” (Q38:V26). Dawood was not only a leader or caliph or prophet but he was ruler as well.  Hence according to the Quran a ruler must be truthful and just.  It is the religious obligation of a ruler to provide justice to everyone irrespective of color, cult, class, country and creed. In sura As-Sajda the Quran says:

 ﭺ  ﭻ  ﭼ  ﭽ    ﭾ  ﭿ  ﮀ  ﮂ  ﮃ  ﮄ  ﮅ 

Meaning: “And we appointed from among them, leaders (Imams), giving guidance under our command, so long as they preserved with patience and continue to have faith in our signs” (32:24).  Hence we see that patience and faith are the basic requirements for divine leadership.

In Surah Al-Qasas the Qur'an says:

 ﯤ  ﯥ  ﯦ  ﯧ  ﯨ  ﯩ      ﯪ  ﯫ  ﯬ  ﯭ  ﯮ  ﯯ  ﯰ  

Meaning: “And we wished to be gracious to those who were being depressed in the land, to make them (Imams) leaders and make them heirs. (Q28:V5). This verse shows that Allah condemns transgressors and oppressors and divinely helps the oppressed ones making them leaders and heirs on the basis of justice and piety. 

In Sura Al-Nisa The Qur'an says:

 ﯵ  ﯶ  ﯷ  ﯸ  ﯹ  ﯺ  ﯻ  ﯼ   ﯽ  ﯾﯿ    

Meaning: “O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you” (Q4:V59).

The above cited verses give us the basics of Islamic political morality.  These verses tell us that a leader or a ruler in Islamic state must be a man of certain qualities.  Muslim political thinkers like Al-Mawardi and Ibnu Katiba also wrote that a Muslim ruler must be a pious, knowledgeable and just man with administrative qualities.  There are numerous sayings of the Holy Prophet that instruct us to obey the men of piety and virtuosity.  The tyrants and evil-doers must not be appointed as leaders or rulers. 

The next series of quotations prescribe that counsel should always be taken in deciding the affairs of the State and all other matters of national interest, which lead to good nation building through democratic rules and good governance. Thus Islam lays down the fundamental governance, by the practice of parliamentary democracy, as given in the verses below:

ﮙ  ﮚ  ﮛ   ﮜ  ﮝ   ﮞ  ﮟ  ﮠ  ﮡ  ﮢ  ﮣ  ﮤ 

Meaning: “And those who respond to their Lord and keep up prayer, and whose affairs are (decided) by counsel among themselves, and who spend out of what We have given them;” (Q42:V38)

ﯞ  ﯟ      ﯠ  ﯡ  ﯢ  ﯣ  ﯤ  ﯥ  ﯦ  ﯧ 

Meaning: And whoever defends himself after his being oppressed, these it is against whom there is no way (of blame). (Q42:V41)

ﯨ  ﯩ  ﯪ  ﯫ       ﯬ  ﯭ  ﯮ  ﯯ  ﯰ  ﯱ      ﯲ  ﯴ  ﯵ   ﯶ  ﯷ  ﯸ 

Meaning: “The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress men and revolt in the earth unjustly. For such there is a painful chastisement.” (Q42:V42)






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