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The Quranic Methodology in Establishing Evidence against the Unbelievers


Allah says in the Quran:

 ﮦ  ﮧ   ﮨ  ﮩ  ﮪ   ﮫ  ﮬ  ﮮ  ﮯ  ﮰ  ﮱ     

Meaning: “invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best.” (Q16:V125). The Quran also states:

   ﭒ    ﭓ  ﭔ  ﭕ  ﭖ  ﭗ  ﭘ  ﭙ  ﭬ  

Meaning: “And do not argue with the People of the Scripture except in a way that is best” (Q29:V46)

According to the Scholars of tafseer, arguing with the unbelievers in the best manner implies inviting them to the truth of Islam by establishing strong evidences against them with kindness and leniency.

The Quran employed various methodologies in establishing evidences against different categories of unbelievers. Below are some of them:

  1. Posing a challenge to the unbelievers to come up with a similitude of the Quran or a chapter like one of its chapters or even ten verses. When they could not come up with any of the above, Allah declared them defeated by asserting that: ﭜ   ﭝ  ﭞ  ﭟ  ﭠ  ﭡ  ﭢ  ﭣ  ﭤ  ﭥ  ﭦ   ﭧ  ﭨ  ﭩ  ﭪ  ﭫ     ﭬ  ﭭ  ﭮ  ﭯ 

Meaning: Say, "If mankind and the jinn gathered in order to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like of it, even if they were to each other assistants." (Q17:V88)

  1. Giving illustrations for the unbelievers to ponder upon. the Qurans states:

 ﯫ  ﯬ  ﯭ  ﯮ  ﯯ   ﯰ  ﯱ  ﯲ  ﯳ  ﯴ  ﯵ  ﯶ  ﯷ   ﯹ  ﯺ  ﯼ  ﯽ  ﯾ  ﯿ  ﰀ 

Meaning: “Allah presents an example: a slave owned by quarreling partners and another belonging exclusively to one man - are they equal in comparison? Praise be to Allah! But most of them do not know.” (Q39:V29).

  1. Highlighting the futility of the claims of the unbelievers. For example when the polytheist claimed that there are more than one God, the Quran replied them by saying:

 ﭗ  ﭘ    ﭙ  ﭚ  ﭛ        ﭜ  ﭝ  ﭞ  ﭟ  ﭠ  ﭢ  ﭣ  ﭤ          ﭥ  ﭦ  ﭧ  ﭨ   ﭩ  ﭪ  ﭫ  ﭭ  ﭮ  ﭯ  ﭰ  ﭱ 

Meaning: “Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any deity. [If there had been], then each deity would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe [concerning Him].” (Q23:V91).

  1. Asking them to provide evidences for their claims. For example the Jews and Christians claimed only them will enter paradise, the Quran challenged them to provide evidence for their claims.

 ﯧ  ﯨ  ﯩ  ﯪ  ﯫ  ﯬ  ﯭ      ﯮ  ﯯ  ﯰ   ﯲ  ﯳ  ﯵ  ﯶ  ﯷ  ﯸ  ﯹ   ﯺ  ﯻ 

Meaning: “And they say, "None will enter Paradise except one who is a Jew or a Christian." That is [merely] their wishful thinking, Say, "Produce your proof, if you should be truthful." (Q2:V111)

  1. Clarifying the misconception of the unbelievers. For example when the Jews claimed they had killed Prophet Isa the Quran says: ﭰ  ﭱ  ﭲ  ﭳ  ﭴ  ﭵ  ﭶ   ﭷ  ﭸ  ﭹ  ﭺ  ﭻ  ﭼ  ﭽ  ﭾ  ﭿ  ﮁ  ﮂ   ﮃ  ﮄ  ﮅ  ﮆ  ﮇ  ﮉ  ﮊ  ﮋ  ﮌ  ﮍ  ﮎ  ﮏ  ﮐ   ﮒ  ﮓ  ﮔ  ﮕ 

Meaning: And [for] their saying, "Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah." And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain.” (Q4:V157).

  1. Calling on the unbelievers to ponder over astonishing creations of Allah. the Quran says:

 ﭑ  ﭒ  ﭓ  ﭔ  ﭕ  ﭖ  ﭗ  ﭘ  ﭙ  ﭚ  ﭜ    ﭝ  ﭞ   ﭟ  ﭠ    ﭡ  ﭢ  ﭣ  ﭤ  ﭥ  ﭦ   ﭧ  ﭩ  ﭪ   ﭫ  ﭬ  ﭭ  ﭮ  ﭯ  ﭰ  ﭱ  ﭲ  ﭳ  ﭴ  ﭵ  

Meaning: “And Allah has sent down rain from the sky and given life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who listen.  And indeed, for you in grazing livestock is a lesson. We give you drink from what is in their bellies - between excretion and blood - pure milk, palatable to drinkers.” (Q16:V65-66).


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