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The Restricted All-inclusive Verses in the Qur'an

MIT
3/20/2017
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All praises and thanks are due and belong to Allah, and may peace and blessings of Allah be upon the best of humanity; Prophet Muhammad, his family , companions and all such who follow his guidance and tread upon his sunnah (tradition).

Restricted all-inclusive verses is a very important issue in the philosophy of Islamic jurisprudence which helps Jurist in making a lot of jurisprudential deductions from the verses that fall under this category. The all-inclusive refers to a verse, which is general and unaccompanied with anything denying its possibility of being restricted nor any indication denying its general meaning. The content of such verses contain exclusive statements, far from wordily clues, mental clues and customary clues depicting its generality or specialty.  Apparently, this is to be treated as general until there shows a proof of its restriction or specialty.

Example of restricted all-inclusive verses is as follows:

Allah says:

وَٱلْمُطَلَّقَٰتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَٰثَةَ قُرُوٓءٍ ۚ

“Divorced women shall wait by themselves for three periods….” (Al-Baqara: 228)

This verse shows generally that all divorced women are to wait for three menstrual or purification periods-according to the difference of opinion in the interpretation of periods-, however, there is an indicator outside the wordings of the verse that shows that the waiting period for divorced women who are pregnant is when they deliver; Allah says:

وَأُو۟لَٰتُ ٱلْأَحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَن يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ

“….As for those who are pregnant, their term shall be until they have delivered…”(Talaaq:4)

Another outside restrictor that restricted the generality of period mentioned in the above verse is the saying of Allah:

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِذَا نَكَحْتُمُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنَٰتِ ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ فَمَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ عِدَّةٍ تَعْتَدُّونَهَا ۖ فَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ وَسَرِّحُوهُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا

“O you who believe! When you marry believing women, but then divorce them before you have touched them, there is no waiting period for you to observe in respect to them; but compensate them, and release them in a graceful manner.”

Another all-inclusive general verse is the saying of Allah:

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْمَيْتَةُ وَٱلدَّمُ

“Prohibited for you are carrion, blood….” (Al-Maa’ida:

Apparently , the wordings of this verse generally forbids all kinds of carion(dead meat ), but an outside indicator restricted its generality taking out of it dead animals of the ocean. Allah says:

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ ٱلْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُۥ مَتَٰعًا لَّكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ ۖ

“Permitted for you is the catch of sea, and its food-as sustenance for you and for travelers…” (Al-Maa’ida:96)

The food of the ocean here is defined by scholars as what the ocean throws out by itself, and this comprises of dead fishes and the rest which are permitted to be eaten.

Many are the verses that fall under this category, enumerating all here would lead to prolongation, however , the information provided before citation of such verses is enough as a brief guide to this branch of Qur’anic science.






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