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Science of the Characteristics of the Qur'an

MIT
5/15/2017
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The Glorious Qur’an is the final divine revelation for the complete guidance of humanity. It is entirely Allah’s words brought down by the arc-angel Gabriel (peace be upon him) to the final Prophet and Messenger; Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). It enjoys many unique and special characteristics in comparison to previous scriptures. The field of Qur’anic studies that detailedly describes the outstanding status of the Qur’an and its unique features is named as “the science of the characteristics of the Qur’an”.

Characteristics of the Qur’an:

1-It is preserved from distortions, alterations, additions and subtractions. This is so because Allah the Almighty has taken responsibility of its preservation and protection:

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا ٱلذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُۥ لَحَٰفِظُونَ

Surely We revealed the Message, and We will surely preserve it.” (Al-Hijr: 9)

Ways and means of preserving the Glorious Qur’an was facilitated by Allah through His servants. Since its revelation, the preservation of the Qur’an was a matter highly upheld by the Prophet Muhammad-peace be upon him-and his companions. The Arc-Angel Gabriel through whom the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad had to revise it with him every Ramadan yearly and twice in the year the Prophet died-peace be upon him. Many companions of the beloved Prophet of Islam also memorized the Qur’an in the very presence of the Prophet and had their memorization and recitation of it authenticated and endorsed by him. it was also written down in copies which were in the possession of many companions. It was collected into one copy during the caliphate of Abubakar Siddeeq and was finally compiled into a book form by Uthman the third caliph (may Allah be please with all of them). It is the consensus of all Muslims that the Qur’an as it exists today is the same as was revealed to the Prophet word-by-word, letter-by-letter and vowel by vowel.

2-it is the last of the divinely revealed scriptures and yet supersedes them. Allah says in the Qur’an:

وَأَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِٱلْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ ۖ

And We revealed to you the Book, with truth, confirming the Scripture that preceded it, and superseding it” (Al-Maa’ida:48)

Superseding them means it comprises of everything in those scriptures and more testifying to the true God’s words and laws in them and rejecting what humans added into them. What agrees with the Qur’an of those scriptures is the truth and what disagrees with it from them is falsehood for it is the Only word of Allah that remains in its pristine form free from distortions and changes. Ibn Abbas said, “How can you ask the people of the Scriptures about their Books while you have Allah’s Book [the Qur’an] which is the most recent of the Books revealed by Allah, and you read it in its pure undistorted form?” (Bukhari)

3-another characteristic of the Qur’an is that it challenged the world to produce a type of it if they think it comes from other than Allah. This challenge was pronounced at a time when the most celebrated human potential was eloquence and poetry, yet no one dare stood up for this challenge. It declared:

قُل لَّئِنِ ٱجْتَمَعَتِ ٱلْإِنسُ وَٱلْجِنُّ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يَأْتُوا۟ بِمِثْلِ هَٰذَا ٱلْقُرْءَانِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِۦ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا

“Say, "If mankind and jinn came together to produce the like of this Quran, they could never produce the like of it, even if they backed up one another." (Al-Israa:88)

4- the recitation of every letter of it brings multiple rewards unlike other books of its kind. The Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) said, “Whoever recites a letter from Allah’s Book, then he receives the reward from it, and the reward of ten the like of it. I do not say that Alif Lam Mim is a letter, but Alif is a letter, Lam is a letter and Mim is a letter.” ( Tirmidhee)

5-it is made easy to be memorized and preserved in the hearts. The Qur’an is the most fully memorized book on the face of this earth. If all the copies of the Qur’an and other books are to be burnt today, it is only the Qur’an that will be reproduced exactly as it is without even the slightest change. Allah says:

وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا ٱلْقُرْءَانَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

We made the Quran easy to learn. Is there anyone who would learn?” (Al-Qamar:17)

6-it is the living miracle of the truthfulness of the Message of Prophet Muhammad-peace be upon him-. Whilst the miracles of past Prophets such as the staff of Moses, the healing powers of Jesus (peace be upon them) has become only stories and tales recorded in books, the miracle of the Prophet Muhammad-peace be upon continue to exist and stand up the challenge of all times. Its linguistic miracles leave talented poets wonderstruck. Its scientific accuracy dumbfounds the learned scientist of this technological age. Historic accounts of it serve as the mother source of world historians.

7- it does not contradict itself. Religious researchers have discovered as many as hundreds of contradictions in the books and versions of the Bible. Yet no one ever made any substantive claim that can be intellectually supported through scriptural evidence that the holy Qur’an contradicts itself. Indeed had it not emanated from Allah there would have been many contradictions in it. Allah says in the holy Qur’an:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ ٱللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا۟ فِيهِ ٱخْتِلَٰفًا كَثِيرًا

Do they not ponder the Quran? Had it been from any other than God, they would have found in it much discrepancy.” (An-Nisaa’ : 82)






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