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One of the most prominent characteristics of the Islamic civilization is that it was founded on the absolute oneness of Allah, the Lord of the heaven and earth, as Allah is the truly worshipped god. He is the one who has no partner in His rule, and no fellow in His reign and dominion. He is the one who treasures, humiliates, gives and grants. He legislates to His creatures what is good for them and their lives. All people are slaves to him and equal in the sense of belonging and resorting to Him without human or clerical mediation. They have to obey Him and follow His orders and implement His revealed law.


Impact of monotheism


Perhaps this highness – in understanding the doctrine of monotheism – makes one feels personal dignity, and that he does not submit to one of Allah's creatures, thus preparing an atmosphere to work and think freely.


Scholar Sulayman Al-Nadwi[1] says: "The doctrine of monotheism brought by the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad (peace be upon him), managed to liberate man from the fears that controlled his feelings. Thus, man – thanks to this belief – feared no one but Allah after Allah made subject to him what he worshiped before, such as the sun, earth, rivers and seas. Man's feeling of majestic awe and majesty of the governance of humans vanished. Therefore, the gods of Babylon, Egypt, India and Iran seemed nothing but servants for man, caring for his interests and guarding his property. Gods did not appoint or depose those kings, but it was man who promoted and degraded them. The human community which was subject to the rule of gods was corrupt, torn and disunited in classes governed by unjust traditions that made noble and ignoble of man; this belongs to a high class, and that belongs to a low class; this was created from the head by the great god of India (Bremor), thus becoming noble, and that was created from the foot, thus becoming a servant; another is created by the greatest god, thus having to represent the middle-class people. As a result of this belief, it was natural that the human society then was classified according to lineages and strains, ignoring the simplest meaning of the principle of human equality, human highness, and fair distribution of rights. The world at that time was nothing but a ring for wrestling over the achievements of groups and classes. [2]"


He then talks about the greatness of Islam, saying: "Since its emergence, Islam has dispelled the darkness, and made people know for the first time the doctrine of monotheism and the meaning of human brotherhood, which bridged gaps and removed the artificial standards. Thanks to this doctrine, man recognized his right to equality which was stripped from him. History is a witness to the positive and effective results of this doctrine and how it affects the mentality of people and nations, who admitted – willingly or unwillingly –  the virtue of this doctrine, although they still do not know all its meanings and its real influence in changing the fate and standards. People who do not believe in monotheism lack the genuine principle of human equality. They lack this principle in their communities, clubs and even in their temples, where people are received according to their statuses (the protocol). No doubt that Muslims are good, as they knew this principle for thirteen centuries thanks to their belief in the oneness of their God Almighty. They were freed from artificial standards and set social classes. People in Islam are equal like the teeth of a comb. They are not discriminated because of color, country or nationalism. They stand in front of their Lord, prostrating and lowly. They are honest and equal in treating each other. There is no difference among them except by faith, and one is preferred to another only by work {Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you} [Al-Hujurat: 13][3]


Principles of monotheism

Hence, Muslims' belief in the oneness of their god, the creator and the mastermind of the universe, has an obvious impact that reflected clearly on their culture and their contributions to the march of humanity. This has been shown through the following principles:


1- Disbelief in deification of rulers: this theory prevailed in ancient times and civilizations, where rulers were believed to be created from a component that is higher than that of humans. Muslims' disbelief in this theory resulted in the possibility of bringing a ruler to account when he commits a mistake. Muslims do not deify their rulers. They fear only from Allah (be He Exalted), the absolute ruler who enacted legislation and laws for people. His creatures should follow His orders and implement His revealed legislation. In this one feels personal dignity, and that he is not subjugated to any of Allah's creatures. Thereby, he works and thinks freely, seeking to satisfy his Lord by doing good and avoiding evil. Every verse of the Qur'an calls for monotheism. Allah Almighty says: {O men! Call to mind the grace of Allah unto you! Is there a creator, other than Allah, to give you sustenance from heaven or earth? There is no god but He: how then are ye deluded away from the Truth?} [Fatir: 3]


2- Equality among humans: Then, there are no noble or scurvy people; no one belongs to a high class, while another belongs to a lower class; there is no human or clerical mediation. All people were created by one god, who they worship. All people are equal like the teeth of a comb, not divided according to their color, nation or others, but according to faith and piety, hence raising the status of man and liberating him from the dominion of others. The Prophet (peace be upon him) announced this superior principle in his farewell address: “O people! Verily, your Lord is one and your father is one. There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab; nor for the white (people) over the black nor for the black over the white except in piety…"[4]


3- Absence of statues and the elimination of all manifestations of idolatry, whether in its old form, which means statues and idols, or in its modern form, which means deification of the ruling state and worship of persons. Therefore, people of this civilization are not subjugated to any of Allah's creatures. Rather, they devote their worship and slavery to Allah (be He Exalted).


4- Correct perception of the Creator, the universe and account: hence living in this world, reconstruction of the universe, and eying for the hereafter, the house of account and penalty.


Thus, monotheism is a characteristic of the Islamic civilization. This contributed to raising the status of humans and liberating them from tyranny, and drawing attention to Allah, the creator and the mastermind of the universe.


1. Sulayman Al-Nadwi: (died in 1953). He was one of the Muslim scholars in the Indian peninsula. He assumed judiciary in Bahubal in addition to other posts. He published Al-Ma'arif (knowledge) magazine. He had works published in Urdu, most of which were translated into Turkish, the most famous of which is the Prophet's biography (published in 10 volumes).

 2. Sulayman Al-Nadwi: Al-Sirah Al-Nabawiyah (Prophet's biography) 4/523, 524, on the authority of Abu Al-Hasan Ali Al-Hasani Al-Nadwi: Al-Islam wa Atharuh fi Al-Hadarah wa Fadluh ala Al-Insaniyah (Islam and its impact on civilization, its grace on humanity) p 24-27.

3. The same abovementioned reference.

4.  Narrated by Ahmad (23536), Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut said correct. Al-Tabarani: Al-Mu'jam Al-Kabir (14444), Al-Haythami said: its men are right. See Majma Al-Zawa'id 3/266. Al-Albani said: correct, see Al-Silsilah Al-Sahihah (2700).



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