The Soul is a creation (Makhlooq) of Allah. It remains in contact with the body throughout the worldly life and causes the body to have life. Death occurs when the soul departs. Allah says about the soul in the Qur’aan: “They ask you concerning the soul. Say that the soul is from Allah and you have not been given knowledge of it except a little.”
Islam places much care on the preservation of the soul. In fact, it can be said without any hesitation that, there virtually exist no religion or civilization that cares about preserving the soul than the Islamic civilization. Minds that have had enough satisfaction of the verses of the glorious Qur’an, the purports of the prophetic guidance with regards to the soul and the historic events of the Islamic history shall find this a non-ridiculous claim.
Islam view human soul as sacred and a gift from Allah, the Creator. For the protection of human soul, Islam has legislated capital and corporal punishments and retribution unto those transgressing criminals who murder and physically harm others. Killing falls into three types: intentional and/or premeditated murder, manslaughter, and total mistake.
Islam commands the execution of anyone who commits premeditated murder of an innocent person, seeking to place as strong a deterrent as possible to eradicate the temptation of intentional murder.
Unintentional manslaughter and mistaken killings are separate categories with separate lesser sentences and blood money is paid to the close relatives of the victim. The family or the heirs of the killed victim are given a diyah (blood money) unless they choose to forgive the killer. The killer must repent to Allah and make atonement by freeing a Muslim slave, and if this is not possible, by fasting for two consecutive months.
All such penalties are for preservation of the Soul. All oppressive or abusive must be warned against unjust killing, victimizing or harassing other innocent members of the Islamic society, and these strict punishments should be made clear. If the retaliation is not similar to the crime itself, criminals become emboldened in their criminal activities.
All other corporal punishments have the same rationale, wherein the punishment is proportionate to the crime with specific measurements of retribution predetermined to stop all arguments and confusion.
All capital and corporal punishments are oriented for the preservation of human life and property in an Islamic society. Allah, the Exalted, states in the Qur’an:
وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
“In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) Life to you, o ye men of understanding; that ye may restrain yourselves.”(Al-Baqarah 2:179))
In conclusion, it must be brought into bear that Islam has imposed certain specific duties on everyone in respect to protection of the soul. It categorically states that man does not own his soul or his own body: rather it is a sacred entity entrusted to him on a temporary basis. It is not allowed for anyone to intentionally torture or harm himself, or carry-out any type of suicidal crime or reckless act leading to his destruction.(source: newmuslim.com with some excerpts)