The Quran has presented different logical arguments to prove the Lordship of Allah using nature and creation. One of such arguments is that the universe must necessarily have a Creator because it is impossible for the universe to have created itself or to have been created by nothing. Therefore, there must have been a Creator who provided the initial force and energy needed to set the universe in motion. This is sometimes called the cosmological argument. Allah says in the Quran:
ﭽ ﭪ ﭫ ﭬ ﭭ ﭮ ﭯ ﭰ ﭱ ﭲ ﭳ ﭴ ﭵ ﭶﭷ ﭸ ﭹ ﭺ ﭻ ﭼ
Meaning: “Were they created by nothing, or were they the creators of themselves? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Rather, they are not certain.” (Q52:V35-36)
Newton’s first law of motion tells us that bodies at rest will stay at rest unless a force acts upon them. Therefore, the initiation of the universe required force and energy to originally set it in motion. This force and energy is the work of Allah the Exalted, the Creator.
Allah’s saying, “Rather, they are not certain,” refers to the uncertainty inherent in atheist philosophy. In fact, the preeminent “new atheist” philosopher Richard Dawkins admitted in debate that he cannot be certain Allah does not exist. This is because atheism is not based upon any evidence, but rather ignorance of the truth as known through sound reasoning and human nature.
ﭽ ﭫ ﭬ ﭭ ﭮ ﭯ ﭰ ﭱ ﭲ ﭳ ﭴ ﭵ ﭶﭷ ﭸ ﭹ ﭺ ﭻ ﭼﭽ ﭾ ﭿ ﮀ ﮁ ﮂ ﭼ
Meaning: “They say: There is nothing but our worldly life, and we live and die and nothing destroys us but time. They have no knowledge, but rather they only speculate.” (Q45:V24).
Next, Allah calls our attention to observe the various signs (ayat) in nature that demonstrate His power and design. This is sometimes called the teleological argument.
ﭽ ﯱ ﯲ ﯳ ﯴ ﯵ ﯶ ﯷ ﯸ ﯹ ﯺ ﯻ ﯼ ﯽ ﯾ ﯿ ﭼ
Meaning: “Verily, in the alternation of the night and the day and in what Allah has created in the heavens and the earth are signs for a people who would be righteous.” (Q10:V6)
And Allah said:
ﭽ ﯛ ﯜ ﯝ ﯞ ﯟ ﯠ ﯡ ﯢ ﯣﯤ ﯥ ﯦ ﯧ ﯨ ﯩ ﯪ ﯫ ﭼ
Meaning: “Do they not see that We made the night for resting therein and the day giving sight? Verily, in that are signs for a people who believe.” (Q27:V86)
And Allah said: ﭽ ﮝ ﮞ ﮟ ﮠ ﮡ ﮢ ﮣ ﮤ ﮥ ﮦ ﮧ ﮨ ﮩﮪ ﮫ ﮬ ﮭ ﮮ ﮯ ﮰ ﮱ ﯓ ﯔ ﯕ ﯖ ﯗ ﯘ ﯙ ﯚ ﯛ ﯜﯝ ﭼ
Meaning: “Do you not see that Allah sends down rain from the sky, and We produce thereby fruits of varying colors? And in the mountains are tracts, white and red of varying shades and black, and among people and moving creatures and grazing livestock are various colors similarly.” (Q35:V27-28)
And Allah said: ﭽ ﯓ ﯔ ﯕ ﯖ ﯗ ﯘ ﯙ ﯚ ﯛ ﯜ ﯝ ﯞ ﯟ ﯠ ﯡ ﯢ ﯣ ﯤ ﯥ ﯦ ﯧ ﯨ ﯩ ﯪ ﯫ ﯬ ﯭ ﯮ ﯯ ﯰ ﯱ ﯲ ﯳ ﯴ ﯵ ﭼ
Meaning: “Then let mankind look at his food, how We poured down water in torrents, then We broke open the earth, splitting it with sprouts, and caused to grow within it grain, and grapes and herbage, and olive and palm trees, and gardens of dense shrubbery, and fruit and grass as enjoyment for you and your grazing livestock.” (Q80:V24-32).
Thus, from the sun and the moon in the heavens, to the creatures on the earth, to the innermost parts of the human being – all of these point to the power and deliberate design of the Creator. It is human instinct (fitrah) to recognize these signs as evidence of the Creator’s purpose.
ﭽ ﮉ ﮊ ﮋ ﮌ ﮍ ﮎ ﮏ ﮐ ﮑ ﮒ ﮓ ﮔ ﮕ ﮖ ﮗ ﮘ ﮙ ﮚ ﮛ ﮜ ﮝ ﮞ ﮟ ﮠ ﮡ ﮢ ﮣ ﮤ ﮥ ﮦ ﮧ ﮨ ﮩ ﮪ ﭼ
Meaning: “Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding, who remember Allah while standing or sitting or lying on their sides and give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth, saying: Our Lord, You did not create this aimlessly; exalted are You above such a thing, then protect us from the punishment of the Fire.” (Q3:V190-191)
Ibn Kathir said: “Whoever thinks about the running rivers that travel from area to area bringing benefit, whoever ponders over what Allah has created on earth; various animals and plants of different tastes, scents, shapes and colors that are a result of unity between land and water. Whoever thinks about all of this then he will realize that these facts testify to the existence of the Creator, His perfect ability, wisdom, mercy, kindness, generosity and His overall compassion for His creation. There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, nor is there a Lord besides Him, upon Him we rely and to Him we turn in repentance. There are numerous verses in the Quran on this subject.”