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The Ottoman Turks in Europe (sometimes called Euro-Turks) refers to ethnic Turks living in Europe. Most Turks live in Turkey, but in the diaspora, most of them live in Germany. This includes the traditional Turkish minorities of Europe and their diasporas (namely) the Balkan Turks, Meskhetian Turks, and Turkish Cypriots) and people descending from Turkey.


The Turkish people have had a long history in Europe dating back to the Ottoman era when they began to migrate to Southeast Europe during the Ottoman conquests which, other than Turkey, created significant Turkish communities in Bulgaria (Bulgarian Turks) Bosnia, and Herzegovina (Bosnian Turks), Cyprus (Turkish Cypriots) Georgia (Meskhetian Turks), Greece (Cretan Turks, Dodecanese Turks, and Western Thrace Turks), Kosovo (Kosovan Turks), the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian Turks), and Romania (Romanian Turks).


During the rule of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1923), Turkish settlers began to move into the Ottoman territories in Europe as part of the Turkish expansion. Because these Turkish communities migrated to these countries during the Ottoman rule, they are not considered part of the modern Turkish diaspora. However, these populations, which have different nationalities, still share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as today's Turkish nationals.


However, modern immigration of Turks to Western Europe began with Turkish Cypriots migrating to the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when the British Empire annexed Cyprus in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. However, Turkish Cypriot migration increased significantly in the 1940s and 1950s due to the Cyprus conflict.


Conversely, in 1944, Turks who were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia during the Second World War, known as the Meskhetian Turks, settled in Eastern Europe (especially in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine)


By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe increased significantly from Turkey when Turkish "guest workers" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria in 1964; France in 1965; and Sweden in 1967. More recently, Bulgaria Turks, Romanian Turks, and Western Thrace Turks have also migrated to Western Europe.






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