Disbelief in the Names and Attributes of Allah is of two types:
1- Absolute and unreserved denial: This is disbelief without any doubt, for if a person denies any name or attribute of Allah that is clearly established in the Qur’an and the Sunnah, such as by saying: “Allah does not have a hand,” he is a disbeliever according to the consensus of the Muslims. This is because believing something that Allah and His Messenger have told us is unquestionably a clear act of disbelief which takes a person outside the fold of Islam.
For example: If a person says: Allah does not have a real hand, nor does He have a hand the meaning of which is His grace or power, then he is a disbeliever, because he has utterly rejected it and denied the reality of its existence.
2- Negation by ta'weel (interpretation or substituting the obvious meaning with another): Here one does not deny it outright but claims a different interpretation for it. This is also of two types:
a) Plausible interpretation in the Arabic language: In this case, it does not constitute disbelief.
For example: If he said about the statement of Allah, the Exalted:
بل يداه مبسوطتان))
“Rather, both his hands are outstretched.” [Surah Al- Ma’ida, 5:64]
That “His hands” here refer to His favor, grace and blessing or His power and ability, then it does not constitute disbelief, because the word “hand” does sometimes carry those meanings in the Arabic language.
b) Not plausible in the Arabic language: This type constitutes disbelief. This is because if it is not plausible then it is, in fact, a denial which is disbelief.
For example: If a person says that Allah’s hand refers to the heavens and the earth, then he is a disbeliever. This is because “hand” neither carries that meaning in the Arabic language, nor is it ever used with that meaning anywhere in texts of the Qur’an and the authentic Hadith. Therefore, such a person is a rejecter who has belied Allah’s statement.