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Names and Attributes of the Holy Qur'an

MIT
11/13/2017
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Praises and thanks are due to Allah Alone; the Giver of Guidance and the Revealer of divine scriptures. May Allah’s peace and salutations be upon the holy Prophet Muhammad, upon his family and all his companions.

The Noble Qur’an is entirely Allah’s speech in wordings and meanings revealed to the holy Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) through the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel) (peace be upon him) over a period of 23 years. Its revelation was entirely in the perspicuous Arabic language as it was the language of the Prophet Muhammad and his immediate community. Its richness in Arabic grammar and its superb arrangements of facts, arguments and past events left the most talented Arab poets at the time of its revelation in a wonderstruck. It is highly unimaginable and impossible for such great Book with such outstanding characteristics to be the creation of the human mind.

It is a book that describes itself in itself by calling it certain names and attributing to it certain attributes, which in a summary depicts something unique about the Quran, helping humans to know it better.

This is not merely a fascinating phenomenon, but a fact that reflects that unique scripture. A scripture that stood the test of time, change the hearts of those who listen to it. it turned the barbarian Arabian society- which before was wallowing in the wheel pool of paganism like that of the animal kingdom-into an angelic society with people ever ready to obey the command of their creator and execute His orders and injunctions. A scripture of these unique characteristics need to be known better such that it can be recognized and accredited with the right accreditation. Yes, indeed, it is the Qur’an, the book of wisdom, the book of guidance, and a representation and a demonstration of Allah’s attribute of speech; hence, it is the holy words of Allah. Allah says:

إِنَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا كَبِيرًا

Indeed, this Qur’an guides to that which is most suitable and gives good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great reward. [17:9]

It has many names and attributes depicting its greatness and profound uniqueness. For instance, it is called as:

1-the Qur’an: Allah says:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ ٱللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا۟ فِيهِ ٱخْتِلَٰفًا كَثِيرًا

“Do they not ponder the Quran? Had it been from any other than God, they would have found in it much discrepancy.” (An-Nisaa” :82)

The word Quran comes from the root letters قرأ, meaning to recite or to read. The word is in the hyperbolic form, meaning that it is something, which is read much often. In fact, it is the most often recited book in the world, with millions of people having memorized it by heart from cover to cover. It is read in Mosques all over the world, especially in Ramadan when in almost every mosque it is read from cover to cover during tarawih (night Ramadan Prayer) once or twice or even more. That is why it is called the Quran.

2-Huda ( Guidance):Allah says:

ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

“There is no doubt, guidance for those conscious of Allah about this Book”. [2:2]

Quran is called huda, because it guides true people who are in search of Allah towards the right direction. You will hear stories of people becoming Muslims just by reading the Quran, and even that in English translation. Even when Muslims are confused or losing taqwa, we can gain it back just by reading the Quran, if Allah wills. We recite in salah every day, ‘Guide us to the straight path.’ The answer to that dua is the rest of the Quran.

3-Arabiy: it Is described as a book revealed in the perspicuous Arabic language (Arabiyun Mubeen. Such a unique attribute befitted the society in which it was first revealed. Allah says:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Indeed, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand. [12:2]

وَإِنَّهُۥ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ

نَزَلَ بِهِ ٱلرُّوحُ ٱلْأَمِينُ

عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلْمُنذِرِينَ

بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِىٍّ مُّبِينٍ

It is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. The Honest Spirit came down with it. Upon your heart, that you may be one of the warners. In a clear Arabic tongue.” ( Shu’raa:192-195)

The Quran is the Book that was sent to the Prophet (peace be upon him) through Jibreel (Angel Gabriel-peace be upon him-) by Allah, and that was in Arabic. That is the only Quran, and what we read in English or any other language are just translations of the meanings of the Quran. That is why it is so important to learn Arabic in order to understand the Quran in its own language.

4- the Qur’an is also attributed with the attribute of greatness (Al-Adheem). Allah; the most High:

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَاكَ سَبْعًا مِّنَ الْمَثَانِي وَالْقُرْآنَ الْعَظِيمَ

“And We have certainly given you, [O Muhammad], seven of the often repeated [verses] and the great Qur’an. [15:87]

5-it is the Balaagh. (Notification). Allah the most High says:

هَٰذَا بَلَاغٌ لِّلنَّاسِ وَلِيُنذَرُوا بِهِ وَلِيَعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَلِيَذَّكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

This [Qur’an] is notification for the people that they may be warned thereby and that they may know that He is but one God and that those of understanding will be reminded. [14:52]

Balaagh is a clear message. Allah said here that the Quran is a message for all people. This is the last ayah of this surah, and Allah said in the first ayah of this surah (translation of meaning): “Alif-Lam-Ra. (This is) a Book which We have revealed unto you in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light. [14:1]

6.    -Bayyinah. Al-Bayyina is among the names of the Qur’an which means clear evidence. Meaning after the Qur’an there is no any clear evidence for whoever is seeking guidance and the way to his/her lord. Allah says:

لَمْ يَكُنِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ مِنْ أَهْلِ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ وَٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ مُنفَكِّينَ حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ ٱلْبَيِّنَةُ

Those who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture, and the Polytheists, were not apart, until the Clear Evidence came to them.” (Al-Bayyina:1)

7-it is called a book of Rahma (mercy) for the believers: Allah says:

وَإِنَّهُ لَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And indeed, it is guidance and mercy for the believers. [27:76)

8-The holy Qur’an is described as being a glad tiding (Al-Bushra’): Allah says:

قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُۥ نَزَّلَهُۥ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

“Say, "Whoever is hostile to Gabriel-it is he who revealed it to your heart by God's leave, confirming what preceded it, and guidance and good news for the believers." (Al-Baqara:97).

The Quran is glad tidings, for whom? Only for the true believers. In it you will find the descriptions of Paradise, and the promise of good things from Allah if you truly believe.

9- it is the Basheer and  Nadheer: (a book that bring good news and give warnings). Allah says;

تَنزِيلٌ مِّنَ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

كِتَٰبٌ فُصِّلَتْ ءَايَٰتُهُۥ قُرْءَانًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ

بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا فَأَعْرَضَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ

“A revelation from the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. A Scripture whose Verses are detailed, a Quran in Arabic for people who know. Bringing good news, and giving warnings. But most of them turn away, so they do not listen. (Fussilat: 2-4)

The Quran warns us about the consequences of disobeying our Master. It gives us descriptions of punishments which may befall sinners, in order to warn us not to be among them. This warning in itself is a mercy from Allah, giving us the opportunity to get our acts together.

It is also described as the Ajaban (an Amazing book) in the story of the Jinns when they listened to it from the holy Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. This ayah has an interesting story attached to it. The devils used to eavesdrop at the heavens in order to listen to the conversations of the angels. One day, when they went to do this, fireballs were thrown at them and they returned. They travelled all around the world in order to find out what had caused this to happen. Some of them came across the Prophet (saws) while he was praying Fajr prayer with his companions. When they listened to the Quran being recited, they were amazed by it. They realized that this was what had intervened when they went eavesdropping in the heavens. They returned to their people and said the word in the ayahs above, which were then revealed by Allah to the Prophet, and the surah in which they appear is called surat al Jinn.

Other names and attributes of the Qur’an are mentioned in the books on the sciences of the Qur’an such as the book by Imam As-Suyuti known as “Itqaan Ulum Al-Qur’an”( Mastering the Sciences of the Qur’an)






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